Bible Code Digest
February 2002


Complex Mosaic Codes

They are difficult to explain, and they don’t have the allure to most people of traditional Bible codes, and yet mosaic codes have a compelling beauty all their own -- especially to mathematicians and statisticians.

Perhaps most important of all, mosaics have the potential to prove the existence and validity of Bible codes to skeptical scientists. Why? Because it is strictly the analysis of letter formations in the Bible text, with no controversies over the meanings of ELSs, correct Hebrew spellings of modern words, religious bias, etc., etc., etc.

We have written extensively about mosaics. The Noah mosaic has some very mysterious aspects. It is made up of more than 30,000 tiny tiles scattered over the first 17 chapters of the Hebrew Bible. What makes this mosaic so intriguing and mystifying is that, although existence is certain, its real appearance and potential meaning are shrouded in great uncertainty.

That will likely remain so for years to come, because its 30,000 tiles are (at least at present) indistinguishable from a much larger collection of nearly half a million tiles. Furthermore, it is only one of more than 1,000 complex mosaics, all tightly housed within the first 17 chapters of Genesis, formed by thousands of occurrences of ELSs of very short Hebrew words that are typically significant in terms of their meaning somewhere in the literal text.

Mosaics Have Lain Silent for Years

What makes this massive collection of complex mosaics even more intriguing is that it has lain silently within the scrolls and parchments of the first book of the Hebrew Bible as it has been painstakingly and reverently copied, letter for letter, down through the centuries. Here one can see a direct parallel to DNA, whose fantastic and marvelous complexity remained secreted within the trillions of cells of billions of people down through the centuries until being discovered in the middle of the 20th century. Likewise, the existence of complex mosaics awaited the advent of computer search routines before coming to light.

We stumbled on mosaics more than a year ago while doing a search for a three-letter word with common letters. Realizing that it would appear thousands of times in the Bible, we limited the skip range to between one and five, and chose a small section of text to search. When the results popped up, we noticed that the ELSs found were way over what the program had calculated as the expected number of finds. When we had confirmed these results with our own calculations, it was the beginning of the research that led to our mosaic theories.

One example of these complex mosaics is the Eckad Mosaic, spelled thus in Hebrew:

Eckad is one of the most central and controversial Hebrew words in the Torah. It is the Hebrew word for “one” that is at the core of what is widely regarded as the most important Biblical verse of Judaism: “Shema Yisrael! Adonai Elohenu Adonai Eckad” or “Hear O Israel! The Lord is our God, the Lord is one.” (Deuteronomy 6:4)

This verse has been cited by Jews throughout the centuries as an emphatic statement of their belief in only one God and as a reason for rejecting the claimed divinity of Jesus by Christians. In other words, if Judaism could be distilled down to one word, Eckad would be a prime candidate for that word. The meaning of this one little three-letter Hebrew word has been at the core of the intense controversy between Jews and Christians for nearly two millennia.

One analysis we did on the word was a comparison of the variations between the actual and expected number of appearances at different bands of skip sizes in Genesis 1-17. We were truly astonished by the result, seen in this chart.

Compare these results with a chart showing normal percentage variations between the actual and expected number of times a three-letter word appears as an ELS at various bands of skip sizes in the first 17 chapters of Genesis.

Among the dozen or so Hebrew words for which we have checked for complex mosaics, the strength of the effect invariably was the strongest when the range of text was exactly the first 17 chapters of Genesis. Whenever we varied the search text from that, the effect weakened quickly. And that was true for every mosaic we had checked. That is not the kind of thing one would expect if mosaics were simply random phenomena. Something very interesting was going on with regard to mosaics in Genesis 1-17.

A review of the literal text of this passage revealed some possible explanations. First, the text begins with an account of God’s creation of the universe, the earth and life on our planet. In terms of significance, it would be hard to beat that. Genesis 17 ends with the completion of God’s covenant with Abraham—one of the most pivotal events recounted in the entire book of Genesis. It is on the basis of that covenant that Jews down through the millennia have claimed a “divine right” to the land of Israel. And there is God’s blessing of Ishmael, who was the father of the Arabs. So Genesis 17 is in effect the source of the Arab-Israeli conflict that continues in ugly intensity even to our present day.

Finally, right at the exact center of Genesis 1-17, is the last verse of Genesis 8. This verse is notable as being the end of the description of God’s covenant with Noah to not flood the earth again (after the worldwide flood had just receded).

Moving Ahead

What we had discovered with a handful of mosaics decided us to investigate an entire set of all possible short Hebrew words. Our goal was to see if there might be some relationship between the meaningfulness of each Hebrew word and the strength of the mosaic effect within Genesis 1-17 exhibited by all of the ELSs for the word.

Our first objective was to check out all possible digrams (two-letter strings). This posed a number of difficulties, such as how to come up with some kind of “objective” measure of how meaningful different two-letter Hebrew words were. Some tentative experimentation resulted in the theory that the more times a Hebrew word appeared in the entire Hebrew Bible, the more “meaningful” it was. This notion had a certain intuitive appeal, because a word that was frequently used was more likely to have pungent meaning than one that the author(s) of the Hebrew Bible rarely used.

After testing this idea, we could see that it had the clear advantage of being totally objective, and it was comparatively easy to implement. So we used that definition in one version of the experiment we designed. In running the experiment and observing the results, it became evident, however, that certain two-letter Hebrew words were extremely common and relatively meaningless. So we ran a second version of the experiment where we excluded those words. Among that collection were such apparently neutral words as: a, the, this, then, not, or, to, on, for, so, then and also.

Second was the practical problem that running the code search program for just a single digram for all possible skip sizes was an extensive task. After the search program had found 10,000 occurrences of a given ELS, it would stop compiling such occurrences because its “basket” was full. Given that the total number of ELSs of any chosen digram within Genesis 1-17 was typically in the range of 250,000 to 1 million, we were looking at it taking two to three hours to compile the data for each digram.

Fortunately, we found a shortcut to deal with this. For reasons a bit complicated to explain, when a given digram exhibits a mosaic effect, that effect tends to be the strongest at skip sizes around 5,000 and 15,000. Furthermore, there is a strong correlation between the strength of the mosaic effect at adjacent skip band sizes. So we were able to simplify by gathering data for each digram for small bands of skip sizes around these values (specifically, 5,001-5,025 and 15,001-15,100). The results are summarized in this chart, illustrating the relationship between the meaningfulness of different digrams and a measure of the extent of the mosaic effect for each:

If there were no validity to complex mosaics, the line in this graph should be virtually flat, with random small variations up and down from a horizontal line. Instead, we see a line that rises sharply and unmistakably as it moves from left to rightand unmistakably so for the last four points. This lends strong support to the notion that the author(s) of Genesis 1-17 intentionally wrote it in such a way that complex mosaics would result from it—with the most pronounced mosaics being those comprised of Hebrew words that were more meaningful.

To be continued in the March issue.


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